Arduino Language Reference

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, variables and functions.list of structure variables functions

Structure:


  • setup()
  • loop()

Control Structures:


  • if
  • if…else
  • for
  • switch case
  • while
  • do… while
  • break
  • continue
  • return
  • goto

Further Syntax:


  • ; (semicolon)
  • {} (curly braces)
  • // (single line comment)
  • /* */ (multi-line comment)
  • #define
  • #include

Arithmetic Operators:


  • =  (assignment operator)
  • +  (addition)
  • -   (subtraction)
  • *   (multiplication)
  • /   (division)
  • %  (modulo)

Comparison Operators:


  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators:


  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)

Pointer Access Operators:


  • * dereference operator
  • & reference operator

Bitwise Operators:


  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)

Compound Operators:


  • ++ (increment)
  • – (decrement)
  • += (compound addition)
  • -= (compound subtraction)
  • *= (compound multiplication)
  • /= (compound division)
  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)

Variables:

Constants:


  • HIGH | LOW
  • INPUT | OUTPUT | INPUT_PULLUP
  • LED_BUILTIN
  • true | false
  • integer constants
  • floating point constants

Data Types:


  • void
  • boolean
  • char
  • unsigned char
  • byte
  • int
  • unsigned int
  • word
  • long
  • unsigned long
  • short
  • float
  • double
  • string – char array
  • String – object
  • array

Conversion:


  • char()
  • byte()
  • int()
  • word()
  • long()
  • float()

Variable Scope & Qualifiers:


  • variable scope
  • static
  • volatile
  • const

Utilities:


  • sizeof()
  • PROGMEM

    Functions:

    Digital I/O:


    • pinMode()
    • digitalWrite()
    • digitalRead()

    Analog I/O:


    • analogReference()
    • analogRead()
    • analogWrite() – PWM

    Due only:


    • analogReadResolution()
    • analogWriteResolution()

    Advanced I/O:


    • tone()
    • noTone()
    • shiftOut()
    • shiftIn()
    • pulseIn()

    Time:


    • millis()
    • micros()
    • delay()
    • delayMicroseconds()

    Math:


    • min()
    • max()
    • abs()
    • constrain()
    • map()
    • pow()
    • sqrt()

    Trigonometry:


    • sin()
    • cos()
    • tan()

    Random Numbers:


    • randomSeed()
    • random()

    Bits and Bytes:


    • lowByte()
    • highByte()
    • bitRead()
    • bitWrite()
    • bitSet()
    • bitClear()
    • bit()

    External Interrupts:


    • attachInterrupt()
    • detachInterrupt()

    Interrupts:


    • interrupts()
    • noInterrupts()

    Communication:


    • Serial
    • Stream

    USB (Leonardo and Due only):


    • Keyboard
    • Mouse


 

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